Is Day Trading For A Living Your Cup Of Tea?

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If you like working with other people’s money, then maybe day trading for a living is what you should be doing. This type of trading works daytime hours only, from the moment the stock market opens at 9am until it closes at 4pm in the afternoon, you can do a lot of trading in that amount of time. Or maybe you want to do day trading for livings with your own money, that way if you loose it, then you have no one to blame but yourself. However, it may be a good way to watch your…
day trading for a living, day trading
If you like working with other people’s money, then maybe day trading for a living is what you should be doing. This type of trading works daytime hours only, from the moment the stock market opens at 9am until it closes at 4pm in the afternoon, you can do a lot of trading in that amount of time. Or maybe you want to do day trading for livings with your own money, that way if you loose it, then you have no one to blame but yourself. However, it may be a good way to watch your money grow too. The following is the basic definition of what day trading is all about. Maybe it is your cup of tea, maybe not, only you can decide.

What is Day Trading?

Day trading for a living is when you take a position in the markets with a view of squaring that position before the end of that day. Day trading for a living mean a trader usually trades many times a day looking for fractions of a point to a few points per trade, however, by the end of the day he or she will close out all their positions. The goal of the day is to capitalize on price movement within one trading day. Unlike investors, the day trader will hold positions for only a few seconds or minutes, and never overnight.

What day trading really means.

The meaning of day trading is actually a misunderstood term. True day trading means not holding on to your stock positions beyond the current trading day, meaning your not suppose to hold on to your stock overnight. Trading this way is really the safest way to do day trading, this way one is not exposed to the potential losses that can happen if the stock marked is closed due to news that can affect the prices of your stocks. There are many people out there today who are not very good “day traders,?they are actually more like con artists just out to take your money. Because of greed, they will hold your stock overnight, setting themselves up for the catastrophic elimination of their capital. In day trading currency, the term “day trading?changes slightly. Because currencies can be traded 24-hours a day, there can’t’ really be any overnight trading. You can have open positions for longer than a day with active stop losses than can be activated at any time.

There are a few different types of day traders out there today, it can actually be subdivided into a number of styles.

Scalpers- This type of day trading involves the rapid and repeated buying and selling of a large amount of stocks within minutes or seconds. The goal here is to earn a small per share profit on each transaction while minimizing the risk.

Momentum Traders- This style of day trading involves identifying and trading stocks that are in a moving pattern during the day, in an attempt to buy such stocks at bottoms and sell at tops.

The advantages of day trading for a living is there are no overnight risks. Because positions are closed prior to the end of the trading day, news and events that affect the next trading day’s opening prices do not affect your client’s portfolio. Day trading for a living has a greater leverage on your client’s capital because of the low margin requirements as their trades are closed in the same market day. This increased leverage can increase your client’s profits if used wisely.

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Entities in the trading system in Indian Stock Markets

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Entities in the trading system in Indian Stock Markets
trading system, indian stock markets, stock market, india, Articles Directory – Free Articles For Reprint in text, html and RSS formats – Articles Universe, ArticlesUniverse
There are four entities in the trading system. Trading members, clearing members, professional
clearing members and participants.

1. Trading members: Trading members are members of NSE. They can trade either on their own
account or on behalf of their clients including participants. The exchange assigns a Trading member
ID to each trading member. Each trading member can have more than one user. The number of
users allowed for each trading member is notifi ed by the exchange from time to time. Each user
of a trading member must be registered with the exchange and is assigned an unique user ID. The
unique trading member ID functions as a reference for all orders/trades of different users. This ID is
common for all users of a particular trading member. It is the responsibility of the trading member
to maintain adequate control over persons having access to the fi rm User IDs.

2. Clearing members: Clearing members are members of NSCCL. They carry out risk management
activities and confi rmation/inquiry of trades through the trading system.

3. Professional clearing members: A professional clearing members is a clearing member who is not
a trading member. Typically, banks and custodians become professional clearing members and clear and settle for their trading members.

4. Participants: A participant is a client of trading members like financial institutions. These clients
may trade through multiple trading members but settle through a single clearing member

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How Soon Will Saudi Arabia Turn to Nuclear Energy?

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How soon will Saudi Arabia join the nuclear club? You might be surprised with our investigation. How will this change the world energy picture? Water desalination will be the driving force behind Saudi entry into nuclear energy.
Saudi Arabia, Middle East, electricity, nuclear energy, energy, Russia, France, Pakistan, uranium, nuclear power
While a growing number of countries have announced their civilian nuclear energy ambitions over the past twelve months, no other country is likely to have more of a psychological impact on the nuclear energy picture than Saudi Arabia. We believe the Kingdom natural gas and water problems will lead them to nuclear, sooner rather than later, probably as early as this year.

After our interview with Kevin Bambrough, which resulted in the widely read article, ‘Explosion in Nuclear Energy Demand Coming,?we began more deeply researching Bambrough conclusion. He believes the overwhelming growth in nuclear energy will continue to drive the uranium bull market much higher than is suspected. He believes the uranium renaissance has gone beyond the envelope of just a mining inventory shortage. We researched this further during the course of our investigation into uranium and geopolitics. We were surprised by what we discovered, and continue to be stunned by how accurate Mr. Bambrough forecast is likely to play out. We included the special sub-section, which follows, in our soon-to-be-published, A Practical Investor Guide to Uranium Stocks. Below is a sneak preview.

An April 2006 UPI news item confirmed what many have long believed. It won’t be long before Saudi Arabia launches a nuclear project. Kuwaiti researcher Abdullah al-Nufaisi told seminar attendees in Qatar that Saudi Arabia is preparing a nuclear program. He said the government was being urged to launch a nuclear project by Saudi scientists, but had not yet received the blessing by the royal family. Social, not energy, issues could help the Saudi royals embark on a large-scale nuclear program.

Of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 24 million subjects, more than 40 percent are under 18 years of age. While still manageable, the country infrastructure is not prepared to deal with its explosive population growth. The two biggest problems facing Saudi Arabia are potential water and electricity shortages. True, its super oilfields may also have peaked in production and might move into tertiary recovery, but that is unknown. An Islamic revolution, similar to what Iran suffered in the 1970s is probably foremost in the King mind. Civil unrest might come about should his subjects suffer from insufficient electricity and inadequate water supplies. One need only look at the widespread electricity shortages Syria experienced in the 1980s and early 1990s.

As reported in the October 14, 2004 issue of Arab Oil and Gas, the Saudis lag well behind Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates in per capita energy consumption. The rate of natural gas consumption, which produces Saudi electricity, increased less than Egypt and Syria. Total energy consumption dropped by 3.5 percent in 1999 and 2000.

The internationally heralded “Gas Initiative?of 1998 was the Kingdom attempt to lure major western oil companies back into the country to help develop its natural gas reserves. After major oil companies spent $100 million in due diligence to evaluate the Saudi natural gas reserves, the initiative quietly dropped off the world radar screen. A Shell Oil executive, whose company is exploring for gas in the country Empty Quarter, told Bloomberg Daily Energy News that this was a high-risk venture with a low probability of finding sizeable reserves. In Matthew Simmons?Twilight of the Desert, he repeated what he was told by an anonymous senior oil executive, “The reservoirs are crummy.?
The Saudis need water and electricity to match their population growth. Nuclear energy is likely to be the solution to both those problems. Continued dependence upon natural gas may prove a fatal economic and social error for the royal family. Our research forecasts the Saudis should announce a large-scale civilian nuclear energy program in the near future.

Let discuss the water problem first. In a 2002 story reported in the Oil & Gas Journal, Saudi Arabia 30 desalination plants produce about 21 percent of the world total desalinated water production. Nearly 70 percent of the local water drunk in cities comes from desalinated sea water. As the population grows, Saudi Arabia may spend another $40 billion to build more desalination plants.

Half of the world desalination plants are in the Middle East. Most are powered by fossil fuels, especially natural gas. Converting sea water to potable water is energy intensive. The commonly used desalination method of multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation with steam requires heat at 70 to 130 degrees centigrade and consumes up to 200 kilowatt hours of electricity for every cubic meter of water (about 264 gallons). MSF is the most popular technology, but some are turning to reverse osmosis (RO). RO consumes about 6 kilowatt hours of electricity for every cubic meter of water.

Desalination is very expensive. The cost to generate this electricity through natural gas explains why Saudi Arabia spends about $4 billion in operating and annual maintenance costs.

There are numerous precedents in combining water desalination with nuclear energy for electrical generation. The World Nuclear Association highlights the BN-350 fast reactor in Kazakhstan, which has produced 135 MWe of electricity and 80,000 cubic meters per day of potable water for nearly 30 years. In Japan, ten desalination facilities are linked to pressurized water reactors producing electricity. The International Atomic Energy Agency is working closely with about 20 countries to implement dual-use nuclear reactors, which would also desalinate water.

According to the World Nuclear Association website, “Small and medium sized nuclear reactors are suitable for desalination, often with cogeneration of electricity using low-pressure steam from the turbine and hot sea water feed from the final cooling system. The main opportunities for nuclear plants have been identified as the 80-100,000 m3/day and 200-500,000 m3/day ranges.?
There are numerous examples of nuclear desalination being considered. In 1977, Iran Bushehr nuclear facility was to also have a 200,000 cubic meter/day MSF desalination plant. Construction delays, and the subsequent Islamic revolution, prevented this from occurring. Perhaps when Iran commences its civilian nuclear program, the desalination plant will be revived. China is reviewing the feasibility of a nuclear seawater desalination plant in the Yantai area. Russia has advanced a nuclear desalination project with barge-mounted marine reactors using Canadian reverse-osmosis technology. India has begun operating a nuclear desalination demonstration plant at the Madras Atomic Power Station in southeast India. Another one may soon follow in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which perpetually suffers from water shortages. Pakistan continues its efforts to set up a demonstration desalination plant. South Korea has developed a small nuclear reactor design for cogeneration of electricity and water. It may first be tested on Madura Island in Indonesia. Argentina has also developed a small nuclear reactor design for electricity cogeneration or solely for desalination.

The Saudis have investigated dual use for nearly thirty years. Since 1978, Saudi scientists have studied nuclear desalination plants in Kazakhstan and Japan. Both studies positively assessed the feasibility of bringing the first dual-use nuclear reactor in Saudi Arabia. Since the mid 1980s, scientists and researchers at the Saudi Nuclear Engineering Department at King Abdulaziz University, the College of Engineering at the University of Riyadh, the Chemical Engineering Department of King Saud University, and the Atomic Energy Research Institute have researched and evaluated nuclear desalination. Saudi scientists presented their paper, entitled, ‘Role of Nuclear Desalination in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,?at the First International Conference on Nuclear Desalination in Morocco in October 2002.

The country possesses a tandetron accelerator and a cyclotron capable of isotope production for medical purposes. Saudi nuclear scientists have been involved with many countries to help their country develop a bonafide nuclear energy program. In late March 2006, a German magazine reported Saudi Arabia has been secretly working on a nuclear program with help from Pakistani scientists. Ironically, many believe Saudi Arabia helped finance Pakistan nuclear program. Because Saudi scientists lack the proven experience of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, Pakistan expertise, over the past decade, could help accelerate the Kingdom pursuit of a civilian nuclear program.

While lacking proven uranium deposits, the country Tabuk region has low-grade amounts of uranium and thorium. However, Saudi Arabia has significant phosphate deposits, which some believe could be exploited. The country two largest deposits reportedly measure about 750 million metric tons, averaging between 19 and 21 percent P2O5. Mined by the Saudi Arabian Mining Company and the Saudi Basic Industrial Corporation, fertilizer plants at the Al Jubail Industrial City produce about 4.5 metric tons of P2O5 annually. While extraction of uranium from phosphates can be an expensive proposition, the phosphates could provide a ready supply of uranium for the country nuclear desalination plants. Then, it would be a matter of uranium enrichment, of which both the Russians and the French would be scrambling to provide the Kingdom.

While the Saudi program many not directly impact world uranium prices, the Kingdom decision to advance its nuclear program, beyond the research and medical stage, would signal the entire world that nuclear energy programs will be a primary growth sector for the next fifty to one hundred years. Should the Saudis also commence desalination projects using dual-use nuclear reactors, this could change the entire landscape of the water situation for the Middle East as well as Africa. And it would most likely spark a significant stampede of the Kingdom neighbors into the global nuclear renaissance.

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Online Stock Trading

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Among the many revolutionary changes brought about by the advent of the Internet is online stock trading. Once the exclusive preserve of the rich and the wealthy, the stock market has now become a place where even the common man can play a part. Investors today can use Internet client-server technology to trade stocks anywhere, anytime they like. Just a couple of mouse clicks and the client is through with a thousand-dollar transaction!
Stock Trading, Online Stock Trading, Option Stock Trading, Stock Trading Systems
Among the many revolutionary changes brought about by the advent of the Internet is online stock trading. Once the exclusive preserve of the rich and the wealthy, the stock market has now become a place where even the common man can play a part. Investors today can use Internet client-server technology to trade stocks anywhere, anytime they like. Just a couple of mouse clicks and the client is through with a thousand-dollar transaction!

There are several ways in which one can participate in online stock trading. One can use an online broker, or do it himself.

There are two types of online brokers: discount and full-service. The former are licensed individuals who have direct access to the share market. They neither give you advice nor research the best options. They just order the stocks you want at a discounted price. They earn no commission but make money by selling mass amounts of stock.

In comparison, a full-service broker offers many more stocks. They act as your personal agent in all share-related activities, such as advice in buying shares, creating a safe investment portfolio, and offering investment advice. Commissions being their main source of revenue, they work hard to satisfy you. So they do a lot of research on the best stocks and investments for you, and hope you will stay with them.

As stock trading is a complex thing, you should do your homework before taking the plunge online. Take into account how frequently you trade, what other services might interest you, how reliable the trading system is, whether it is difficult to log on when the market is active, and other variables. As hunch or intuition may turn out to be misleading, try to be conversant with the market state-of-the-art trading techniques and strategies. Try to read the quarterly or annual reports of the companies to know what they are doing with your money. When in doubt, ask your stockbroker.

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Beating the S&P 500 with Stock Market Timing

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Investors can beat the S&P 500 using stock market timing. Most mutual funds can’t.
stock market timing, market timing, timing the stock market, investments
Copyright 2006 Equitrend, Inc.

Approximately 75% of fund managers do not beat the S&P 500 year in and year out. How can a basket of 500 hundred stocks beat the majority of actively managed mutual funds? The people who manage these funds are, for the most part, brilliant people. They are highly educated and have access to the most advanced information and decision support systems in the world. So why is it that they do not outperform the S&P 500?

A Quick Test:

Here’s a very crude test of management performance: Let’s compare the domestic-equity mutual fund performance supplied by Morningstar against the S&P 500 index for one, three, five and ten-year periods, looking back from April 30, 1995. The S&P 500 index is a fair comparison for large, domestic companies.

Our results:

–Of the 1,097 funds Morningstar covered for the one-year period, 110 beat the S&P 500, while 987 fell short. Results ranged from 46.84% to -32.26%, while the S&P 500 attained a 17.44% return.

–During the three-year period, the S&P 500 returned 10.54%, while results in the funds varied from 29.28% to -15.02% compounded annually. Of the total 609 funds, only 266 beat the S&P 500.

–Shifting to the five-year period, of 470 funds, 204 beat the S&P 500. Results ranged from 27.35% to -8.51%, while the index racked up 12.62%.

–At ten years, only 56 of 262 funds managed to beat the index, and results varied from 24.77% to -4.06% compounded annually against 14.78% for the S&P 500.

The fact that most funds do not beat the overall stock market should not be surprising. Since the majority of money invested in the stock market comes from mutual funds, it would be mathematically impossible for the majority all of these funds to out perform the market.

The implied promise held out to investors in actively managed mutual funds is that in exchange for higher fees (relative to index funds), the actively managed fund will deliver superior market performance. There are a host of barriers to fulfilling this implied promise.

Some of the problems are:

–The larger a mutual fund gets, the more difficult it becomes to deliver exceptional performance.

–Although fund size runs counter to performance, fund managers have a strong motivation to let the fund grow as big as possible because the bigger the fund gets, the more money the fund managers make.

–Most skillful mutual fund managers are hired away by hedge funds, where their financial rewards are greater and there are few restrictions on investment techniques.

–By law mutual funds are supposed to be conservative, which in theory limits their potential losses. This conservative stance generally limits their ability to use arbitrage, options, or shorting stocks.

Can You Do Better?

Because of the general inflexibility and restrictions of most mutual funds, your investment capital is not properly hedged against market fluctuations. In most cases, if you compared the beta of the equity exposure held in actively managed mutual funds to an equal equity exposure to the S&P 500 index, your reward/risk ratio would be less rewarding than purchasing an identical equity exposure to the S&P 500 index. So, the answer is, you can do better and beat the S & P 500 by using an effective stock market timing system.

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Investing in Penny Stocks – How To Make Huge Profit From Small Beginnings

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Penny Stock Investing always grabs peoples dreams of instant wealth for no cost because of their name – Penny Stocks. But just what are the pitfalls of these enticing stocks and how do you avoid the painful lessons the unwary will suffer?
Penny Stock Investing,
Investing in penny stocks is all about defining the rules and playing by them as all of the big time investors have before you.

Big time stock traders and investors have played by the rules and started out small, or even very small, swearing by a defined set of rules that basically state they will not continue any cycle of failing that loses them money, over and over.

Losing money instead of learning these rules is something that is unacceptable and potentially crippling to a new investor – even though your brain is trying to tell you that “Heck, it doesn’t matter, they’re only Penny Stocks after all!” (Damn you brain!!)

However, follow a few simple rules and you should be ahead of the penny stock investing game.

Number One and MOST important – Never, ever, under any circumstance borrow money to invest; this is possibly the biggest rule to stay out of investment trouble.

Yes, I know! You think you have the upper hand with some “inside?information that could help you build a huge portfolio in no time!

So have thousands of others before you – and they were all WRONG!

Please, don’t jump on a story with the only answer being borrowing money. If you start to lose money on the stock market, then the debt repayment will come directly out of your pocket. If this happens, trust me – you are now in big trouble.

Even if you begin to make money then you will be spending it to repay the loan instead of saving or reinvesting the funds. This money will stand by and haunt you as you continue to try to make a living off of the stocks you are trading.

Always save up to be able to invest as a rule of thumb, debt will be chased until you finally catch up by being farther behind than you were to begin with.

DON’T DO IT!

Investing in profitable companies is a big rule to keep in mind when investing in penny stocks. I know that reads and sounds awfully silly and a waste of breath but believe me – sometimes people simply invest in a company without determining if the company is profitable or not.

Either they like the name itself – or the product / service the company offers – or even they know a cousin of the manager of the typing pool and reckon it’s keeping it in the family!

Don’t be the sucker that buys a stock and then tunes in to the television or logs on to the internet to see that its quarterly earnings are down and its revenue per share is dropping like a four-ton boulder of the Empire State building – very hard and very fast!).

Find information on how to find a profitable company, it is readily available on the internet, and then determine which company to invest in. Guides for how to evaluate companies, their accounts declarations and markets are readily available.

Also, do all of your homework, research and analysis before you buy a stock that is not garnering any type of attention.

One of the most important things for investors to look at is volume, anything less than one million shares per day is not worth touching. It is a pointless task to purchase a stock that is trading 9,000 shares a day because it will be nearly impossible to sell once you are ready to do so.

Stocks need attention to have liquidity, which basically means that for it to sell it must have value. Don’t be stuck with a rising stock that you will be unable to sell later. Don’t just thinkof all the lovely profit you’ll generate – think about the mechanics of actually being able to realise that profit. After all – so what if you’ve made $1.20 per share in three months – if you can’t actually sell them!

Oh – and in case you forget! DON’T BORROW MONEY FOR INVESTING!!

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How Did ISL Uranium Mining Begin?

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According to the World Nuclear Association, 21 percent of the world uranium production came about from ISL mining in 2004. We conducted interviews with some of the world top ISL experts, including the father of ISL, to help you better understand how uranium is currently mined for the world nuclear power plants.
uranium mining, ISL, nuclear energy, energy, heap leach, mining, Wyoming, Texas, Australia, geology
It time to rewrite the history books. In Situ Leach Mining (ISL), or Solution Mining, was not first commercially started in Bruni, Texas in 1973 by Westinghouse, a consortium of oil companies and others. The birthplace of ISL was never South Texas, as some have claimed. It was begun in Wyoming, about 16 years before an ISL operation was started in Texas. Why there has been a whitewash over the true history of ISL is not our concern. This series is an in-depth investigation into how and why ISL mining came about, how it has been tested over a period of nearly 50 years, and why this type of uranium mining will play an important role in providing U.S. utilities with the raw fuel to power nuclear reactors for the next few decades.

In this modern era of uranium mining, extremely skilled engineers, hydrologists and geologists establish ISL mining operations. Most insiders compare an ISL operation to a water treatment plant. It really that simple to understand. However, as with every modern industrial operation, the roots of ISL mining came about in a less genteel or sophisticated manner. In 1958, Charles Don Snow, a uranium mining and exploration geologist employed by the Utah Construction Company, was investigating a Wyoming property for possible acquisition for his company. During the course of that visit, he discovered a new method of uranium mining and helped pioneer its development into the modern form of ISL.

Since 1957, R.T. Plum, president of Uranyl Research Company, had been experimenting with a leach solution on his property at the Lucky June uranium mine. “They mixed up the sulfuric acid solution and just dumped it on the ground, and soaked it through the material and collected it in a little trench at the end,?Charles Snow told StockInterview. It wasn’t very scientific. Snow added, “They were just learning how, and I observed it and thought that the application could be made through some of the ore that we had in the Lucky Mc mine.?The company was mining uranium this way because it was below the grades miners were used to, when mining. As Snow noted, “It was not worth mining.?But it was practically at the surface. He explained what they were doing at the Lucky June, “There was an area where uranium leached out to the surface in a small area, and it had a clay under-bed. These people put solutions onto the surface, collected the solution, and ran it by resin beads to absorb the uranium.?
While they only recovered about $3600 worth of uranium, roughly 600 pounds, Snow was impressed. He later wrote an inter-office memorandum in July 1959, with the subject header: ecovery of Uranium from Low Grade Mineralization using a leach in place process.? In his conclusion, Snow recommended, “From the preliminary information available, it appears that it will be possible to treat very low grade mineralization for recovery of uranium at a large net profit.?He explained the process to his bosses, encouraging them to consider this as an option:

“In brief, the process introduces a leach solution onto the surface of the ground and allows the solution to percolate down through the area to be leached. The solution is then recovered from wells and circulated through an ion exchange circuit with the barren solution being returned to the leach area. Recovery of the uranium is made by stripping from the ion exchange medium.?
He wanted the Utah Construction Company to try this method of mining where there was low grade mineralization. Snow succeeded in convincing his bosses. That began yet another innovation for Utah Construction Company, the same company which helped construct the Hoover Dam, decades earlier, before it got into the uranium mining business.

Utah Construction Becomes the
First Commercial ISL Miner

Newspaper reports, through the 1960s, illustrate that ISL mining was in full bloom more than a decade before anyone in Texas began a commercial ISL operation. On June 18, 1964, the Riverton Ranger newspaper reported, “The Shirley Basin mine is on a standby basis. The timbers are being maintained and the water pumped out. Total production comes from solution mining.?Between 1962 and 1969, ISL was the only method producing uranium at Utah Shirley Basin Wyoming. Later in that same article, under the section entitled, “Gas Hills Solution Mining,?it was reported, “The Four Corners area is ‘mined?by solution mining techniques similar to those employed at Shirley Basin.?Credit for this new mining method is also reported in that same article, “Lucky Mc introduced the heap leach process of recovering values from low grade ores in 1960.?
Charles Snow explained how his company made the transition from underground mining to solution mining, “The underground mining at Shirley Basin was very expensive, and we were having a lot of heavy ground problems.?The sandstone aquifers containing the uranium were uncemented and brittle, supported with timbers. “In some places, it was too heavy to hold with timbers,?said Snow. “We had to use steel sets underground, and it was even mashing the steel sets. So the expenses were getting very high.?
Water was flowing into the open drifts at prodigious rates. Snow recalled, “Barney Greenly said, ‘Let try solution mining over here.?They did a test, and it did operate quite well. They got some pretty good results. So the underground mine was shut down, and they went to a solution-mining program to produce the allocated pounds in the Shirley Basin area.?The procedure was tested for a few years before a full-scale commercial production began. This fulfilled 100 percent of Utah Shirley Basin uranium production allotment from the AEC.

There were problems at first. “We started out initially using sulfuric acid, and we had some reaction with carbonates in the formation.?Sulfuric acid plus calcium carbonate produces calcium sulfate, and this plugged up the formation. Calcium sulfate is gypsum, which was insoluble in the leach solution. “It tended to plug up the formation and reduce the transmissivity of the fluid from the input hole to the output recovery hole.?

To prevent interference with the porosity of the formation, Snow switched to nitric acid, but admitted, “We were reluctant to use nitric acid because it was much more expensive than sulfuric.?But they did, because the nitric acid solution did not form gypsum. Unlike present-day ISL methods used in Texas, Nebraska and Wyoming, Utah Construction did not use a carbonated leaching solution in their solution mining. Nitric solution was used during the 1960s and continued until the Lucky Mc switched over to open pit mining.

It all started as a heap leach experiment. “We had quite a bit of low grade in Lucky Mc,?Snow told us, “so we thought we would try a heap leach experiment.?Results were good on the test, and Utah pioneered ISL mining. Snow wrote in an August 2, 1960 memo, “The favorable results of the heap leach project and other research indicate that the process can be successfully applied in many of the low-grade areas to recover much of the mineralization.?Later in his report, Snow calculated reserves from random samples obtained from previous drilling at Lucky Mc, “The estimated reserve for the block is 147,000 tons @ 0.0361 percent U3O8, or 106,616 pounds of U3O8.?He estimated the program would cost $111,471. Using a value of $6/pound for U3O8, the anticipated returns were calculated as follows:

50 percent recovery: 53,318 pounds: $208,377
25 percent recovery: 26,654 pounds: $ 48,453

That was just the start. By the end of the decade, Shirley Basin solution mining operation was producing U3O8 at comparable levels to present day production at any of the major U.S. ISL facilities. In a paper presented by Ian Ritchie and John S. Anderson, entitled “Solution Mining in the Shirley Basin,?on September 11, 1967, at the American Mining Congress in Denver, Colorado, these Utah International executives explained the success of the Shirley Basin solution mining operation. In a summary explaining the company activities, we discovered the Shirley Basin operation not only filled the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) allocation requirements from 1962 through 1969 but we learned of the sizeable commitments into the future Shirley Basin was to fill:

“In 1968 sales of uranium concentrate were made to purchases other than the AEC. One of the first sales was to Sacramento Municipal Utility District with a minimum of 950,000 pounds to a maximum of 1,100,000 pounds of uranium concentrate in 1971. Additional contracts were signed with General Electric Company and with Nordostschwerzerische Kraftwerke A.G. (Baden, Switzerland). The contracts called for delivery of 8,000,000 pounds of concentrate to GE between 1968 and 1975, and 500,000 pounds of concentrate to NOK commencing in July 1969.?

Conclusion

The single reason solution mining stopped, well before the first “commercial?ISL operation began in Bruni, Texas in 1973, was because of the improved market forecast for uranium in the 1970s. Utah Construction switched to open pit mining because they needed to produce a lot more uranium. The nuclear renaissance of the 1970s demanded massive quantities of uranium to fuel the rapidly growing nuclear power industry.

Don Snow initial field tests, begun in the late 1950s, resulted in continuous production achieved by late 1962. Subsequently, production in the underground uranium mine was shut down by May 1962. The underground mine was maintained in a standby condition until 1965, when all underground operations were written off. Millions of pounds were mined by Utah Construction through its ISL operations in Shirley Basin. It wasn’t heap leaching.

Sufficient evidence confirms that Wyoming, not Texas, first pioneered commercial ISL mining. Not only were well fields designed as early as 1960, but the entire concept of an ISL “water treatment?plant can trace its roots to Utah Construction pioneer work. Everything from injection wells to production wells were pioneered in the early 1960s. We challenged Charles Don Snow that some have claimed it was heap leaching, not ISL mining. Snow shot back, “No, we drilled holes in the ground and the material had never been mined. We got our ideas, certainly, from heap leaching, which came from the copper industry.?Snow explained that after the solution mining experiment was successful, “A recovery plant was designed and put into the hoist house, where they had had the underground mine. That was designed by Robert Carr Porter and Ian Ritchie.?Snow added, “In fact, Ian Ritchie and J.S. Anderson have a U.S. Patent on the well completion procedures that we used at Shirley Basin.?
Snow pondered if his friend Jack Bailey may have exported the ISL technology to Texas. “Jack Bailey was the Shirley Basin project manager for the underground mine when we switched over to solution mining,?Snow said. “He later went to work for Chevron, and Chevron had operations in Texas. I believe they even experimented with solution mining. Now, whether or not Jack was directly involved, I don’t know.?As it is with history, many of the old-timers are gone. We were told Jack Bailey had had a stroke a number of years back, and did not trace this further. There may have been others. “Some of the people from that area (Shirley Basin) had gone to Texas,?Snow recalled. “There is documentation, it was published information, and a lot of people who went to Texas, came from the Wyoming area. So, I’m sure there wasn’t a paucity of information being transferred.?Ironically, the Westinghouse-led consortium, which included U.S. Steel and Union Carbide, among others, was called Wyoming Minerals. Now we know exactly why they chose that name.

While there have been a number of ISL operations built and operated in Texas, there may be little future for uranium mining in that state, unless there are new discoveries. By a few, Texas has been inaccurately called the “home of ISL mining.?Perhaps that came about because ISL operations continued, during the uranium depression of the past two decades, with small amounts of production occurring in Texas. According to Energy Information Administration figures published in June 2004, uranium reserves in Texas stand at 23 million pounds of U3O8 based upon $50/pound uranium. By comparison, Wyoming and New Mexico reserves, using that same benchmark, reach as high as 363 million and 341 million pounds, respectively.

This may explain the rush by junior exploration companies, such as Strathmore Minerals (TSX: STM; Other OTC: STHJF), Energy Metals Corporation (TSX: EMC), UR-Energy (TSX: URE), Uranerz Energy (OTC BB: URNZ), Kilgore Minerals (TSX: KAU) and others, to Wyoming. The large quantities of pounds are in Wyoming, not Texas. It may also explain why Uranium Resources (OTC BB: URRE) has looked beyond Texas into New Mexico to develop its ISL operation, and Strathmore Minerals has quickly been advancing through its permitting stage on one of its properties in that state. It is fitting that the big past uranium producing states may again become tomorrow leading U.S. producers. In any event, the entire world of ISL mining owes a debt of gratitude to Charles Don Snow for his pioneering efforts in bringing a heap leach experiment into full fruition as modern-day in-situ mining.

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In Value Stock Investing, Quality is Job One

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How do we create a confidence building Stock Selection Universe? Simply operating on blind faith with one of the common definitions may be too simplistic, particularly since many of the numbers originate from the subject companies.
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How much financial bloodshed is necessary before we realize that there is no safe and easy shortcut to investment success? When do we learn that most of our mistakes involve greed, fear, or unrealistic expectations about what we own? Eventually, successful investors begin to allocate assets in a goal directed manner by adopting a realistic Investment Strategy… an ongoing security selection and monitoring process that is guided by realistic expectations, selection rules, and management guidelines. If you are thinking of trying a strategy for a year to see if it works, you’re due for another smack up alongside the head! Viable Investment Strategies transcend cycles, not years, and viable Equity Investment Strategies consider three disciplined activities, the first of which is Selection. Most familiar strategies ignore one of the others.

How should an investor determine what stocks to buy, and when to buy them? Will Rogers summed it up: “Only buy stocks that go up. If they aren’t going to go up, don’t buy them.” Many have misread this tongue-in-cheek observation and joined the “Buy (anything) High” club. I’ve found that the “Buy Value Stocks Low (er)” approach works better. A Google search produces a variety of criteria that help to identify Value Stocks, the standards being low Price to Book Value, low P/E ratios, and other “fundamentals”. But you would be surprised how the definitions can vary, and how few include the word “Quality”. In the late 90’s, it was rumored that a well-known Value Fund Manager was asked why he wasn’t buying dot-coms, IPOs, etc. When he said that they didn’t qualify as Value Stocks, he was told to change his definition… or else.

How do we create a confidence building Stock Selection Universe? Simply operating on blind faith with one of the common definitions may be too simplistic, particularly since many of the numbers originate from the subject companies. Also, some of the figures may be difficult to obtain quickly, and it is essential not to get bogged down in endless research. Here are five filters you can use to come up with a selection universe of higher quality companies, and you can obtain all of the data inexpensively from the same source:

1. An S & P Rating of B+ or Better. Standard & Poor’s is a major financial data provider to the investment community, and its “Earnings and Dividend Rankings for Common Stocks” combine many fundamental and qualitative factors into a letter ranking that speaks only to the financial viability of the rated companies. Potential market performance (a guessing game anyway) is not a consideration. B+ and above ratings are considered Investment Grade. Anything rated lower adds an element of unnecessary speculation to your portfolio. A staff of thousands does your research for you.

2. A History of Profitability. Although it should seem obvious, buying stock in a company that has a history of profitable operations is less risky than acquiring shares in an unproven, or start-up entity. Profitable operations adapt more readily to changes in markets, economies, and business growth opportunities. They are more likely to produce profit opportunities for you quickly.

3. A History of Regular Dividend Payments. The payment of regular dividends, and periodic increases in rate paid, are sure signs of economic viability. Companies will go to great lengths, and endure great hardships, before electing either to cut or to omit a dividend. There is no need to focus on the size of the dividend itself; Equities should not be purchased as income producers. A further benefit of using dividend payment as one of your selection criteria is the clear indication of financial stress that a cut communicates.

4. A Reasonable Price Range. You will find that most Investment Grade stocks are priced above $10 per share and that only a few trade at levels above $100. If you have a seven-figure portfolio, price may not matter from a diversification standpoint, but in smaller portfolios, a round lot of a $50 stock may be too much to risk in one position. An unusually high price may be caused by an unusually high degree of sector or company specific speculation while an inordinately low price may be a good warning signal. With no real structural size limitations, I feel comfortable with a range between $10 and $90 per share… but I would avoid most issues at the higher level.

5. A NYSE Listed Security. I’m not sure that the listing requirements for the NYSE are still more restrictive than elsewhere, but it is helpful to be able to focus on just one set of statistics since most of the information you need regularly is reported by Exchange (Market Stats, Issue Breadth, and New Highs vs. New Lows).

Your Selection Universe will become the backbone of your Equity Investment Program, so there is no room for creative adjustments to the rules and guidelines you’ve established… no matter how strongly you feel about recent news or rumor. Now you can focus on operating procedures that will help you diversify properly by position size, industry, etc., and on guidelines that will help you identify which stocks should be watched closely for purchase when the price is right. Keeping in mind that you want to sell each Equity Position at a target profit ASAP, you’ll want to establish appropriate buying (and selling) rules. For example, I never consider buying a stock until it has fallen at least 20% from its highest level of the past 52 weeks, so I include those that are close or at this price level on a “Daily Watch List”. Then, I select those that I would be willing to add to equity portfolios if they fall a bit more during the trading day. Your actual “Buy List” changes every day in both symbol and limit price.

You will need to apply consistent and disciplined judgment to your final selection process, but you can be confidant that you are choosing from a select group of higher quality, well-established companies, with a proven track record of profitability and owner awareness. Additionally, as these companies gyrate above and below your purchase price (as they absolutely will), you can be more confident that it is merely the nature of the stock market and not an imminent financial disaster… and that should help you sleep nights.

By the way, never say no to a profit when the upward movement equals 10%, and you’ll be able to do it again, and again, and again.

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